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Tables and Diagrams for comets brighter than 15mag


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This page provides observation hints for currently observable comets. That includes orbital elements, ephemerides, visibility diagrams, comparison star maps, brightness parameters etc.


Finder Charts


Hints for particular comets

Important note! The magnitudes listed in the ephemerides can deviate more or less from the observed ones. Up-to-date magnitudes are available under News or under Photometry/Observation Results.

Elements & Ephemerides (ICQ)


Brightness parameters of selected comets

The brightness parameters are also available as a text file.

A detailed explanation of the columns is given at the end of the table.


Aktuelle Kometen / Current Comets

Name / Designation T VoP M0_v n_v M0_n n_n
C/2016 Q2 (PanSTARRS) 20210510.95 - 2.5 4.0

C/2014 F3 (Sheppard-Trujillo) 20210505.45 - 6.0 4.0

186P/Garradd 20190504.94 - 7.5 4.0

C/2016 X1 (Lemmon) 20190430.74 - 6.0 4.0

29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 20190307.75 - 4.0 4.0

C/2010 U3 (Boattini) 20190226.62 - 1.0 4.0

C/2017 B3 (LINEAR) 20190202.44 - 5.5 4.0

C/2016 M1 (PanSTARRS) 20180810.19 - 5.0 4.0

C/2016 N6 (PanSTARRS) 20180718.22 - 7.0 4.0

187P/LINEAR 20180526.55 - 13.5 4.0

C/2016 R2 (PanSTARRS) 20180509.59 - 4.0 4.0

C/2015 XY1 (Lemmon) 20180429.90 - 6.0 4.0

C/2015 O1 (PanSTARRS) 20180219.04 - 8.5 2.0

350P/McNaught 20180129.25 - 10.0 4.0

74P/Smirnova-Chernykh 20180126.70 - 5.0 6.0

C/2016 Q4 (Kowalski) 20180126.61 - 6.0 4.0

C/2015 X5 (PanSTARRS) 20171231.01 - 7.0 4.0

C/2015 V1 (PanSTARRS) 20171217.73 - 6.5 4.0

C/2017 F1 (Lemmon) 20171212.02 - 11.5 4.0

139P/Väisälä-Oterma 20171210.73 - 12.0 2.0

14P/Wolf 20171202.00 - 6.5 8.0

C/2017 F2 (PanSTARRS) 20171130.21 - 7.5 4.0

C/2016 A1 (PanSTARRS) 20171123.36 - 5.5 4.0

24P/Schaumasse 20171116.84 - 7.5 10.0

62P/Tsuchinshan 20171116.19 - 12.0 6.0

96P/Machholz 20171027.95 - 15.0 5.0 11.5 3.0
65P/Gunn 20171016.79 - 6.0 4.5

C/2016 N4 (MASTER) 20170916.59 - 6.5 4.0

C/2014 B1 (Schwartz) 20170910.53 - 2.5 4.0

C/2016 T3 (PanSTARRS) 20170906.97 - 10.0 4.0

145P/Shoemaker-Levy 20170831.93 - 12.0 6.0

C/2015 VL62 (Lemmon-Yeung-PanSTARRS) 20170828.60 - 10.0 2.0

349P/Lemmon 20170826.73 - 14.0 4.0

30P/Reinmuth 20170819.17 - 10.0 4.0

251P/LINEAR 20170716.51 - 17.5 2.0

217P/LINEAR 20170716.56 - 10.0 8.0 10.5 3.0
C/2017 D2 (Barros) 20170714.70 - 10.0 4.0

71P/Clark 20170630.19 - 8.5 6.5

227P/Catalina-LINEAR 20170622.17 - 14.5 4.0

90P/Gehrels 20170619.26 - 9.0 6.0 9.4 4.0
P/2017 G2 (PanSTARRS) 20170613.90 - 13.5 4.0

C/2015 V2 (Johnson) 20170612.34 S 6.8 2.7

47P/Ashbrook-Jackson 20170610.16 - 6.5 6.0

234P/LINEAR 20170601.67 - 12.0 4.0

C/2016 E1 (PanSTARRS) 20170601.40 - 6.0 4.0

C/2017 E3 (PanSTARRS) 20170531.38 - 5.0 4.0

229P/Gibbs 20170520.79 - 13.0 4.0

103P/Hartley 20170520.48 - 9.0 10.0 9.5 4.0
C/2015 T2 (PanSTARRS) 20170520.42 - 8.0 4.0

C/2017 A1 (PanSTARRS) 20170517.12 - 12.0 4.0

C/2015 ER61 (PanSTARRS) 20170509.94 C 6.4 5.8

334P/NEAT 20170505.37 - 8.5 4.0

C/2017 D3 (ATLAS) 20170426.91 - 6.5 4.0

C/2017 E4 (Lovejoy) 20170423.30 C 11.3 8.0

54P/de Vico-Swift-NEAT 20170415.27 - 12.5 6.0

C/2017 G3 (PanSTARRS) 20170415.05 - 14.0 4.0

P/2016 A3 (PanSTARRS) 20170413.58 - 10.0 4.0

41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak 20170412.75 S 10.5 13.0

C/2017 E1 (Borisov) 20170410.13 - 11.0 6.0

73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 20170316.84 S 11.0 6.0

P/2016 S1 (PanSTARRS) 20170316.81 - 11.0 4.0

172P/Yeung 20170313.11 - 13.0 3.0

176P/LINEAR 20170312.14 - 15.0 2.0

2P/Encke 20170310.09 C 10.9 3.2

C/2016 VZ18 (PanSTARRS) 20170307.38 - 15.0 4.0

93P/Lovas 20170301.46 - 9.0 7.0

219P/LINEAR 20170220.61 - 11.5 4.0

188P/LINEAR-Mueller 20170217.03 - 11.5 4.0

346P/Catalina 20170215.50 - 12.5 4.0

336P/McNaught 20170203.05 - 12.0 4.0

C/2016 T1 (Matheny) 20170201.98 - 11.5 4.0

C/2017 A3 (Elenin) 20170130.61 - 9.0 4.0

P/2013 YG46 (Spacewatch) 20170129.50 - 10.0 4.0

343P/NEAT-LONEOS 20170127.72 - 13.0 4.0

P/2016 G1 (PanSTARRS) 20170126.26 - 13.5 4.0

C/2017 C2 (PanSTARRS) 20170121.58 - 14.0 4.0

C/2017 C1 (NEOWISE) 20170118.94 - 17.0 4.0

C/2016 U1 (NEOWISE) 20170114.01 S 11.3 3.9

128P/Shoemaker-Holt 20170110.78 - 6.0 8.0

C/2017 D5 (PanSTARRS) 20170108.85 - 16.0 4.0

P/2017 B4 (PanSTARRS) 20170105.81 - 14.5 4.0

45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova 20161231.26 S 11.4 5.1

C/2016 T2 (Matheny) 20161229.10 - 14.0 4.0

89P/Russell 20161214.69 - 10.0 5.5

C/2014 OE4 (PanSTARRS) 20161210.74 - 6.0 4.0

315P/LONEOS 20161206.82 - 9.0 4.0

C/2016 B1 (NEOWISE) 20161204.71 - 9.5 4.0

338P/McNaught 20161122.14 - 11.5 4.0

340P/Boattini 20161118.49 - 11.0 4.0

P/Haneda-Campos 20161111.0 - 13.5 6.0

344P/Read 20161101.29 - 12.0 4.0

P/2015 TP200 (LINEAR) 20161028.19 - 10.0 4.0

94P/Russell 20161027.67 - 12.0 6.0

238P/Read 20161022.62 - 14.5 4.0

C/2016 P4 (PanSTARRS) 20161016.68 - 10.0 4.0

237P/LINEAR 20161011.67 - 13.0 4.0

C/2016 R3 (Borisov) 20161010.98 - 13.0 4.0

314P/Montani 20161007.86 - 9.0 4.0

C/2015 H2 (PanSTARRS) 20160913.26 - 7.5 4.0

347P/PanSTARRS (2016SV) 20160911.40 - 14.0 4.0

212P/NEAT 20160910.41 - 17.5 4.0

P/2017 D4 (PanSTARRS) 20160906.51 - 13.5 4.0

226P/Pigott-LINEAR-Kowalski 20160905.14 - 12.5 4.0

144P/Kushida 20160831.07 S 7.2 7.0

C/2016 A8 (LINEAR) 20160830.66 S 1.7 16.0

330P/CATALINA 20160829.97 - 10.0 4.0

C/2015 V4 (PanSTARRS) 20160828.23 - 8.0 4.0

C/2015 TQ209 (LINEAR) 20160827.58 - 10.0 4.0

33P/Daniel 20160822.46 - 10.5 8.0

43P/Wolf-Harrington 20160819.69 S 7.5 7.0

C/2014 R3 (PanSTARRS) 20160807.88 - 6.0 4.0

9P/Tempel 20160802.58 S 6.5 10.0

C/2015 X7 (ATLAS) 20160730.23 - 8.5 4.0

339P/Gibbs 20160724.18 - 17.0 4.0

150P/LONEOS 20160724.0 - 13.5 4.0

P/2016 R4 (Gibbs) 20160720.50 - 13.0 4.0

81P/Wild 20160720.30 S 5.3 8.0

56P/Slaughter-Burnham 20160718.44 - 8.0 6.0

345P/LINEAR 20160716.14 - 12.0 4.0

279P/La Sagra 20160714.54 - 14.0 4.0

C/2016 K1 (LINEAR) 20160713.37 - 12.0 4.0

337P/WISE 20160713.23 - 17.0 4.0

208P/McMillan 20160701.79 - 13.0 4.0

207P/NEAT 20160701.0 - 16.0 4.0

146P/Shoemaker-LINEAR 20160630.12 - 13.5 6.0

P/2017 D1 (Fuls) 20160628.28 - 13.5 4.0

P/2016 J1 (PanSTARRS) 20160624.12 - 16.0 4.0

348P/PanSTARRS 20160622.14 - 14.0 4.0

C/2015 T4 (PanSTARRS) 20160618.95 - 10.0 4.0

118P/Shoemaker-Levy 20160616.96 - 10.0 4.0

202P/Scotti 20160611.01 - 13.0 4.0

C/2017 E5 (Lemmon) 20160610.88 - 12.0 4.0

157P/Tritton 20160610.38 - 10.0 4.0

136P/Mueller 20160531.20 - 11.0 4.0

216P/LINEAR 20160531.16 - 13.0 4.0

C/2011 KP36 (Spacewatch) 20160526.89 S 7.0 2.0

341P/Gibbs 20160526.83 - 12.5 4.0

P/2016 J3 (STEREO) 20160521.44 - 19.0 4.0

C/2015 W1 (Gibbs) 20160517.20 - 12.0 4.0

C/2015 Y1 (LINEAR) 20160515.17 - 11.0 4.0

77P/Longmore 20160513.64 - 5.0 8.0

P/2017 G1 (PanSTARRS) 20160513.58 - 14.0 4.0

C/2017 E2 (Tsuchinshan) 20160511.98 - 11.5 4.0

C/2015 B2 (PanSTARRS) 20160506.57 - 8.5 4.0

C/2015 D3 (PanSTARRS) 20160430.77 - 4.5 4.0

302P/Lemmon-PanSTARRS 20160430.56 - 12.0 4.0

53P/Van Biesbroeck 20160429.93 S 8.2 4.0

C/2013 X1 (PanSTARRS) 20160420.72 C S 3.8 5.6 4.4 6.0
C/2016 C2 (NEOWISE) 20160419.59 - 15.0 4.0

C/PanSTARRS (2015WZ) 20160415.79 S 9.5 4.0

C/2016 J2 (Denneau) 20160411.93 - 14.0 4.0

190P/Mueller 20160407.0 - 10.0 8.0

333P/LINEAR 20160403.89 - 11.5 4.0

100P/Hartley 20160402.02 - 13.0 6.0

104P/Kowal 20160328.15 - 15.0 4.0

P/2015 X6 (PanSTARRS) 20160318.66 - 16.0 4.0

127P/Holt-Olmstead 20160317.80 - 14.0 6.0

332P/Ikeya-Murakami 20160317.24 - 16.0 4.0

P/2016 BA14 (PanSTARRS) 20160315.51 - 21.0 4.0

252P/LINEAR 20160315.27 S C 12.2 0.372 11.5 0.00
C/2014 W2 (PanSTARRS) 20160310.48 S 6.6 3.8

P/2015 TO19 (Lemmon-PanSTARRS) 20160306.99 - 13.0 4.0

P/2016 A7 (PanSTARRS) 20160225.86 - 14.0 4.0

C/2016 C1 (PanSTARRS) 20160216.36 - 4.0 4.0

C/2014 W5 (PanSTARRS-Lemmon) 20160211.35 - 9.5 4.0

50P/Arend 20160208.18 - 9.5 6.0

C/2016 E2 (Kowalski) 20160206.43 - 19.0 4.0

C/CATALINA (2016KA) 20160201.44 - 8.5 4.0

211P/Hill 20160127.33 - 12.0 4.0

C/2015 T5 (Sheppard-Tholen) 20160124.69 - 7.0 4.0

P/2015 P4 (PanSTARRS) 20160119.03 - 14.0 4.0

C/2014 Y1 (PanSTARRS) 20160117.58 - 10.0 4.0

116P/Wild 20160111.54 S 8.5 4.0

P/2014 W4 (PanSTARRS) 20151229.68 - 10.0 4.0

328P/LONEOS-Tucker 20151224.11 - 14.0 4.0

C/2015 X2 (CATALINA) 20151220.71 - 16.0 4.0

180P/NEAT 20151212.71 - 11.0 4.0

327P/Van Ness 20151212.42 - 15.5 4.0

204P/LINEAR-NEAT 20151211.59 - 14.0 4.0

C/2014 S2 (PanSTARRS) 20151209.79 S S -4.4 15.0 5.4 2.8
329P/LINEAR-Catalina 20151205.55 - 15.0 4.0

324P/La Sagra 20151129.89 - 13.0 4.0

249P/LINEAR 20151126.70 - 15.5 4.0

C/2015 V3 (PanSTARRS) 20151124.87 - 11.0 4.0

230P/LINEAR 20151118.07 - 13.0 4.0

P/2016 P2 (PanSTARRS) 20151116.62 - 12.0 4.0

C/2013 US10 (CATALINA) 20151115.72 C S 4.9 3.5 5.9 2.9
10P/Tempel 20151114.25 - 9.2 0.038 9.5 0.000
214P/LINEAR 20151112.70 - 13.0 4.0

335P/Gibbs 20151105.95 - 16.5 4.0

C/2016 A6 (PanSTARRS) 20151105.80 - 15.5 4.0

C/2015 X4 (Elenin) 20151103.43 - 9.0 4.0

316P/LONEOS-Christensen 20151029.03 - 9.5 4.0

22P/Kopff 20151025.09 S S 5.0 9.0 7.0 4.0
C/2015 X8 (NEOWISE) 20151023.12 - 11.0 4.0

326P/Hill 20151022.70 - 13.0 4.0

318P/McNaught-Hartley 20151022.47 - 10.0 4.0

P/2015 X1 (PanSTARRS) 20151010.67 - 15.5 4.0

151P/Helin 20151008.07 - 11.5 6.0

C/2013 V4 (CATALINA) 20151007.60 - 5.0 4.0

P/Tritton 20151003.49 - 12.5 6.0

61P/Shajn-Schaldach 20151002.14 S 7.5 8.0

P/2015 W2 (CATALINA) 20150930.89 - 13.0 4.0

C/2015 YG1 (NEOWISE) 20150928.95 - 10.5 4.0

P/2016 P1 (PanSTARRS) 20150922.68 - 15.0 4.0

C/2015 B1 (PanSTARRS) 20150922.40 - 8.0 4.0

C/2014 W8 (PanSTARRS) 20150910.33 - 10.0 4.0

P/2015 Q2 (Pimentel) 20150910.33 - 15.5 4.0

P/2015 Q1 (Scotti) 20150909.15 - 14.5 4.0

C/2015 J2 (PanSTARRS) 20150908.91 - 10.0 4.0

C/2014 A4 (SONEAR) 20150905.86 S 6.0 4.0

P/2015 M2 (PanSTARRS) 20150831.59 - 7.0 4.0

C/2013 C2 (TENAGRA) 20150830.28 - 1.0 4.0

C/PanSTARRS (2015GX) 20150826.66 - 14.0 4.0

C/2014 M1 (PanSTARRS) 20150826.51 - 8.0 4.0

C/2015 M3 (PanSTARRS) 20150826.23 - 11.0 4.0

141P/Machholz 20150825.02 - 15.0 10.0 13.0 6.0
317P/WISE 20150816.78 - 19.0 4.0

C/2012 LP26 (Palomar) 20150816.60 - 6.0 4.0

325P/Yang-Gao 20150815.13 - 15.0 4.0

P/2015 PD229 (Cameron-ISON) 20150814.22 - 9.5 4.0

67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko 20150813.08 C C 11.0 0.032 9.8 0.016
51P/Harrington 20150812.69 - 10.0 8.0

C/2015 F4 (Jacques) 20150810.86 S 6.6 8.5

140P/Bowell-Skiff 20150808.63 - 11.0 6.0

P/2015 X3 (PanSTARRS) 20150807.80 - 14.0 4.0

320P/McNaught 20150807.31 - 18.5 4.0

C/2015 A2 (PanSTARRS) 20150801.83 - 9.5 4.0

C/2015 P3 (SWAN) 20150727.79 - 12.5 3.0

P/2015 D6 (Lemmon-PanSTARRS) 20150714.79 - 10.5 4.0

162P/Siding Spring 20150711.99 - 12.0 4.0

221P/LINEAR 20150711.62 - 14.5 4.0

C/2014 Q1 (PanSTARRS) 20150706.51 S 7.9 3.8

319P/CATALINA-McNaught 20150701.75 - 15.0 4.0

C/2016 A5 (PanSTARRS) 20150628.26 - 13.0 4.0

P/2015 R1 (PanSTARRS) 20150625.77 - 14.5 4.0

P/2016 A2 (Christensen) 20150625.65 - 12.0 4.0

233P/La Sagra 20150625.44 - 15.0 4.0

C/2014 W1 (PanSTARRS) 20150617.32 S S 11.3 0.011 11.3 0.001
331P/Gibbs 20150616.44 - 11.5 4.0

196P/Tichy 20150614.84 - 13.5 4.0

148P/Anderson-LINEAR 20150613.78 - 14.0 4.0

220P/McNaught 20150613.75 - 15.0 4.0

P/2015 R2 (PanSTARRS) 20150608.99 - 15.0 4.0

C/2015 K2 (PanSTARRS) 20150608.79 - 19.5 4.0

P/2015 K5 (PanSTARRS) 20150606.44 - 13.5 4.0

19P/Borrelly 20150528.91 - 5.0 10.0 6.0 6.0
C/2015 G2 (MASTER) 20150523.78 S 8.4 3.9

57P/du Toit-Neujmin-Delporte 20150522.28 - 11.5 6.0

C/2014 HU195 (Valdes-TOTAS) 20150518.04 - 8.0 4.0

C/2015 M1 (PanSTARRS) 20150515.68 - 14.5 4.0

205P/Giacobini 20150513.98 - 13.0 4.0

308P/Lagerkvist-Carsenty 20150507.36 - 13.0 2.0

C/2015 K4 (PanSTARRS) 20150501.76 - 14.5 4.0

C/2015 LC2 (PanSTARRS) 20150501.59 - 8.0 4.0

P/2015 C1 (TOTAS-Gibbs) 20150501.24 - 12.0 4.0

C/2015 F2 (POLONIA) 20150428.82 - 15.5 4.0

268P/Bernardi 20150427.39 - 13.0 4.0

113P/Spitaler 20150423.74 - 11.5 6.0

218P/LINEAR 20150423.17 - 15.0 4.0

174P/Echeclus 20150422.53 - 9.5 2.0

310P/Hill 20150418.60 - 13.5 4.0

42P/Neujmin 20150408.23 - 13.0 6.0

C/2012 F3 (PanSTARRS) 20150406.67 S 6.0 4.0

88P/Howell 20150406.23 S 6.2 6.5

C/2014 XB8 (PanSTARRS) 20150405.63 - 13.0 4.0

C/2015 H1 (Bressi) 20150328.62 - 13.0 4.0

C/2015 F5 (SWAN-XINGMING) 20150328.09 S 11.9 2.0

44P/Reinmuth 20150324.14 - 10.5 6.0

C/2014 W6 (CATALINA) 20150319.01 - 10.5 4.0

P/2015 F1 (PanSTARRS) 20150314.91 - 12.5 4.0

C/2014 N3 (NEOWISE) 20150313.23 - 8.5 2.0

C/2015 A1 (PanSTARRS) 20150313.05 - 14.5 4.0

C/2015 F3 (SWAN) 20150309.35 S 10.2 8.0

C/2015 C2 (SWAN) 20150304.56 - 12.0 4.0 10.0 4.0
P/2015 J3 (NEOWISE) 20150303.76 - 16.5 4.0

6P/d'Arrest 20150302.42 - 11.5 0.145 8.5 0.015
92P/Sanguin 20150301.21 - 10.5 4.5

C/2014 AA52 (CATALINA) 20150227.64 - 10.5 4.0

299P/CATALINA-PanSTARRS 20150223.28 - 10.5 4.0

C/2015 A3 (PanSTARRS) 20150222.48 - 19.5 4.0

P/2015 B4 (Lemmon-PanSTARRS) 20150219.92 - 11.0 4.0

C/2015 D1 (SOHO) 20150219.74 - 12.0 3.0

309P/LINEAR 20150216.51 - 15.0 4.0

C/2014 W9 (PanSTARRS) 20150215.70 - 15.0 4.0

C/2014 G3 (PanSTARRS) 20150202.61 - 9.0 4.0

7P/Pons-Winnecke 20150130.52 - 12.0 6.0

C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) 20150130.06 S C 2.8 9.7 4.0 3.1
P/2014 V1 (PanSTARRS) 20150120.62 - 12.5 4.0

C/2013 G9 (TENAGRA) 20150114.76 - 6.5 4.0

201P/LONEOS 20150114.60 - 14.0 4.0

P/2014 X1 (Elenin) 20150107.74 - 14.5 4.0

C/2014 Q6 (PanSTARRS) 20150106.35 - 10.0 4.0

C/2013 W2 (PanSTARRS) 20150105.29 - 10.0 4.0

C/2014 F2 (TENAGRA) 20150102.37 - 9.0 4.0

15P/Finlay 20141227.05 C 11.0 3.0

C/2014 R1 (Borisov) 20141119.23 S 8.0 5.5

C/2014 Q3 (Borisov) 20141119.06 S 8.5 4.0

C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) 20141025.30 C 8.0 2.5

32P/Comas Sola 20141017.59 S 11.3 2.0

C/2013 V5 (Oukaimeden) 20140928.22 S S 8.6 1.2 10.2 4.0
C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) 20140827.65 S S 5.1 3.8 6.0 3.4
C/2013 UQ4 (CATALINA) 20140705.95 S S 11.9 0.0 11.7 3.2
C/2014 E2 (Jacques) 20140702.51 C S 7.0 4.5 7.1 3.7
134P/Kowal-Vavrova 20140521.49 S S 12.0 0.005 12.5 0.005
209P/LINEAR 20140506.32 S 18.5 0.0

C/2013 V1 (Boattini) 20140421.23 S 10.8 2.5

290P/Jäger 20140312.47 S 7.4 5.2

C/2012 X1 (LINEAR) 20140221.62 C 4.6 4.1

C/2011 J2 (LINEAR) 20131225.29 S 5.3 4.0

C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) 20131222.73 S C 7.1 4.9 6.6 3.8
154P/Brewington 20131212.45 S S 0.8 18.0 10.4 0.013
C/2012 S1 (ISON) 20131128.77 C 8.7 1.9

2P/Encke 20131121.69 C 10.9 4.0

C/2013 V3 (Nevski) 20131029.90 C 8.6 5.0

C/2013 N4 (Borisov) 20130821.51 S 8.0 6.0

C/2012 V2 (LINEAR) 20130816.47 S S 9.0 4.0 5.0 5.0
C/2010 S1 (LINEAR) 20130520.29 S S 9.3 .0005 9.3 0010
C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) 20130509.32 S 5.9 6.0

63P/Wild 20130410.78 S 12.0 0.0

C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) 20130324.51 S C 5.2 4.6 4.8 3.9
C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) 20130310.16 S S 5.4 3.0 5.5 3.6
C/2012 T5 (Bressi) 20130224.05 C 9.0 0.055


Ausgewertete Kometensichtbarkeiten / Analysed Comet Apparitions

Name / Designation T VoP M0_v n_v M0_n n_n
273P/Pons-Gambart 20121219.67 S 8.8 4.8

C/2012 J1 (CATALINA) 20121207.24 S 10.8 0.008

262P/McNaught-Russell 20121204.47 C 11.8 0.023

C/2012 K5 (LINEAR) 20121128.68 C C 9.2 0.025 10.5 0.015
C/2012 A2 (LINEAR) 20121105.09 S S 10.5 0.0 10.5 0.015
C/2011 R1 (McNaught) 20121019.62 S 8.2 2.0

168P/Hergenrother 20121001.96 S C 12.0 0.13 11.3 0.009
260P/McNaught 20120912.52 S 12.5 2.0

185P/Petriew 20120813.57 S 10.5 12.0

C/2011 UF305 (LINEAR) 20120722.16 S 3.0 8.0

96P/Machholz 20120714.78 S S 15.0 5.0 11.3 3.3
P/La Sagra (2012NJ) 20120613.08 S 14.5 2.0

C/2006 S3 (LONEOS) 20120416.32 S S 8.7 1.0 7.7 1.0
C/2012 C2 (Bruenjes) 20120312.65 S 12.0 4.0

21P/Giacobini-Zinner 20120211.73 S 6.2 9.0

78P/Gehrels 20120112.91 S -5.7 20.0

C/2009 P1 (Garradd) 20111223.67 C S 3.9 3.1 4.1 3.3
C/2011 A3 (Gibbs) 20111216.08 S 2.7 0.053

C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy) 20111216.01 S S 15.5 6.0 10.0 6.0
49P/Arend-Rigaux 20111019.07 S 7.5 10.0

45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova 20110928.78 S S 13.0 7.8 11.0 5.2
C/2011 Q4 (SWAN) 20110921.08 S 8.5 6.0

C/2010 X1 (Elenin) 20110910.72 C C 8.5 4.3 10.2 0.098
C/2011 M1 (LINEAR) 20110907.57 S 9.5 7.0

C/2010 G2 (Hill) 20110902.05 S S 9.6 0.017 9.3 0.002
C/2011 L3 (McNaught) 20110810.50 S 12.3 0.028

213P/Van Ness 20110616.26 S 10.7 0.017

C/2011 C1 (McNaught) 20110418.00 S C 10.5 10.8 9.4 6.0
103P/Hartley 20101028.25 S S 9.2 11.2 9.4 3.8
P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami) 20101013.28 S 4.7 0.12

2P/Encke 20100806.50 C 10.1 2.3

10P/Tempel 20100704.90 C C 8.7 0.060 9.1 0.012
C/2009 R1 (McNaught) 20100702.67 C 7.0 2.7

C/2009 K5 (McNaught) 20100430.02 C C 4.3 7.6 6.1 2.9
P/2010 H2 (Vales) 20100306.59 C 10.1 0.002

65P/Gunn 20100302.14 S 6.2 4.4

81P/Wild 20100222.70 S S 10.0 0.0 8.0 3.9
88P/Howell 20091012.46 S S 2.4 15.5 7.2 1.2
C/2007 Q3 (Siding Spring) 20091007.26 S S 4.9 2.8 0.3 7.9
217P/LINEAR 20090908.96 S S 9.6 7.5 10.4 3.0
116P/Wild 20090718.86 S 8.5 0.020

C/2006 W3 (Christensen) 20090706.65 S -0.6 5.7

C/2008 Q3 (Garradd) 20090623.08 S -0.4 12.0

C/2008 T2 (Cardinal) 20090613.24 S 6.0 5.8

22P/Kopff 20090525.42 S S 4.4 9.0 9.4 1.8
C/2009 F6 (Yi-SWAN) 20090507.43 S 7.7 0.018

C/2009 G1 (STEREO) 20090416.50 S 7.9 2.8

C/2009 E1 (Itagaki) 20090407.92 S S 12.4 9.0 9.1 3.4
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko 20090228.36 S 6.7 9.5

144P/Kushida 20090126.86 S S -3.5 33.0 6.1 8.0
C/2007 N3 (LULIN) 20090110.64 S 5.4 4.1

210P/Christensen 20081219.97 S 13.5 4.0

C/2007 G1 (LINEAR) 20081116.31 S 5.5 4.0

C/2008 A1 (McNaught) 20080929.12 S 5.8 3.2

C/2006 OF2 (Broughton) 20080915.68 S C 9.5 0.004 8.0 0.008
6P/d'Arrest 20080814.95 S C 11.7 0.146 8.4 0.017
19P/Borrelly 20080722.34 S 5.0 8.2

C/2008 J1 (Boattini) 20080713.26 S S 2.1 13.0 4.6 7.8
C/2006 Q1 (McNaught) 20080703.85 S 4.8 4.1

C/2007 W1 (Boattini) 20080624.88 S 8.6 4.0

C/2008 C1 (Chen-Gao) 20080416.84 S 6.1 11.0

46P/Wirtanen 20080202.49 S S 8.3 9.0 8.6 5.8
8P/Tuttle 20080127.02 C C 8.0 7.7 7.3 3.2
C/2005 L3 (McNaught) 20080116.00 S 4.0 3.0

93P/Lovas 20071217.34 S 8.8 7.0

C/2007 T1 (McNaught) 20071212.52 S S 7.7 8.5 7.5 4.5
C/2007 F1 (LONEOS) 20071028.75 C 8.2 2.4

C/2006 VZ13 (LINEAR) 20070810.89 S 8.2 4.7

C/2007 E1 (Garradd) 20070523.83 S 7.5 8.0

2P/Encke 20070419.31 S S 10.3 3.1 11.8 5.0
96P/Machholz 20070404.62 S 12.0 4.2

C/2007 E2 (Lovejoy) 20070327.51 S 8.9 3.4

C/2006 P1 (McNaught) 20070112.79 S S 6.2 4.8 4.2 4.5
P/2006 HR30 (Siding Spring) 20070102.28 C 14.0 0.0

C/2006 L2 (McNaught) 20061120.19 S 4.0 7.0

4P/Faye 20061115.44 S S 4.2 11.5 8.5 3.8
C/2006 L1 (Garradd) 20061018.00 S 6.9 5.8

P/2006 T1 (Levy) 20061007.42 S 9.2 28.0

C/2006 M4 (SWAN) 20060928.72 S C 6.5 4.0 5.5 5.5
177P/Barnard 20060828.68 S 8.9 9.0

41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak 20060611.80 S S 9.3 15.0 9.6 8.0
71P/Clark 20060606.80 S C 12.3 0.025 10.7 0.020
C/2003 WT42 (LINEAR) 20060410.76 S 3.0 4.0

C/2005 E2 (McNaught) 20060223.47 S 6.8 3.5

C/2006 A1 (Pojmanski) 20060222.18 S S 8.5 4.5 7.8 3.6
C/2004 B1 (LINEAR) 20060207.88 S 11.5 0.0

C/2005 N1 (Juels-Holvorcem) 20050822.04 S S 9.6 5.5 10.0 3.0
C/2005 P3 (SWAN) 20050809.74 S 11.1 3.7

37P/Forbes 20050801.75 S 9.8 6.0

C/2005 K2 (LINEAR) 20050705.39 C 12.0 4.0

9P/Tempel 1 20050705.31 S 6.4 9.7

21P/Giacobini-Zinner 20050702.76 S 9.0 6.0

161P/Hartley-IRAS 20050620.84 S 9.4 2.2

C/2005 A1 (LINEAR) 20050410.22 S S 8.2 5.4 8.0 3.5
C/2003 T4 (LINEAR) 20050403.64 S 7.9 2.5

32P/Comas Sola 20050401.33 S 9.1 3.8

C/2004 Q2 (Machholz) 20050124.91 S S 5.1 4.0 5.3 3.4
C/2004 V1 (SWAN) 20041221.15 S S 12.0 4.0 13.8 3.2
C/2004 U1 (LINEAR) 20041208.74 S 7.5 4.0

62P/Tsuchinshan 1 20041207.91 S 8.5 8.0

C/2004 Q1 (Tucker) 20041206.86 S S -0.7 13.5 8.1 2.5
78P/Gehrels 2 20041027.06 S S 11.0 0.011 10.1 0.008
C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) 20041013.71 C S 3.1 5.5 5.8 2.4
C/2004 R2 (ASAS) 20041007.89 S 6.8 0.105

C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) 20040515.96 C C 5.5 2.3 5.7 2.9
C/2004 H6 (SWAN) 20040512.68 C 5.3 0.073

C/2003 T3 (Tabur) 20040429.00 S S 6.6 2.6 6.4 3.6
C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) 20040423.06 C C 4.3 3.7 6.1 3.0
C/2004 F4 (Bradfield) 20040417.09 S 8.3 3.4

88P/Howell 20040412.56 S S 6.0 10.0 6.9 6.5
43P/Wolf-Harrington 20040318.78 S 7.0 7.5

C/2003 H1 (LINEAR) 20040222.61 S 7.3 4.5

2P/Encke 20031229.87 C 5.6 0.117

C/2002 O7 (LINEAR) 20030922.56 S 10.1 1.4

C/2001 HT50 (LINEAR-NEAT) 20030709.01 S 8.3 1.3

65P/Gunn 20030511.86 S 9.2 2.0

C/2002 Y1 (Juels-Holvorcem) 20030413.24 C S 6.8 4.9 4.8 0.044
C/2002 V1 (NEAT) 20030218.29 C S 7.0 3.0 5.8 2.5
C/2002 X5 (Kudo-Fujikawa) 20030129.00 S C 7.1 2.0 8.4 3.3
116P/Wild 4 20030121.58 S 9.5 2.0

C/2001 RX14 (LINEAR) 20030118.69 S 9.5 1.0

30P/Reinmuth 20021224.39 S 10.3 4.0

C/2001 K5 (LINEAR) 20021011.76 S 2.5 4.0

C/2002 O4 (Hönig) 20021001.98 C 8.5 2.0

92P/Sanguin 20020923.05 S 10.7 4.6

C/2002 O6 (SWAN) 20020909.44 C 9.2 2.0

46P/Wirtanen 20020826.74 S 9.0 3.0

C/2000 SV74 (LINEAR) 20020430.47 S 6.1 2.9

C/2002 F1 (Utsunomiya) 20020422.89 S S 9.7 6.1 8.0 4.3
C/2002 H2 (LINEAR) 20020323.41 S 10.8 2.0

153P/Ikeya-Zhang 20020318.97 S C 7.0 4.0 6.2 2.8
C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS) 20020315.20 S S 10.0 3.0 10.5 6.0
C/2002 E2 (Snyder-Murakami) 20020221.78 S 7.5 4.7

C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) 20020122.67 C C 7.6 3.0 6.3 5.6
P/2001 MD7 (LINEAR) 20011130.13 S 12.1 1.0

P/2001 Q6 (NEAT) 20011109.46 S 8.5 8.0

19P/Borrelly 20010914.73 S S 4.4 14.0 7.0 6.5
P/2001 Q2 (Petriew) 20010901.92 S 10.5 12.0

C/2001 A2 (LINEAR) 20010524.52 C C 7.6 6.0 7.1 4.3
24P/Schaumasse 20010502.65 S 7.7 10.5

C/1999 Y1 (LINEAR) 20010324.11 S 7.8 2.0

C/2000 W1 (Utsunomiya-Jones) 20001226.55 S S 10.2 3.9 11.0 4.0
C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley) 20001213.47 S 6.2 3.6

C/1999 T2 (LINEAR) 20001124.46 S 9.2 1.2

C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) 20000726.17 C S 9.0 1.9 8.3 0.20
C/1999 K8 (LINEAR) 20000424.30 S 0.5 6.2

C/1999 J2 (Skiff) 20000405.98 S 1.5 4.0

C/1999 L3 (LINEAR) 20000104.90 C 6.5 6.0

106P/Schuster 19991216.22 S 11.5 4.0

141P-A/Machholz 19991209.95 S S 14.8 9.0 13.1 5.7
C/1999 S3 (LINEAR) 19991109.00 S S 11.7 0.016 8.8 3.8
C/1999 J3 (LINEAR) 19990920.16 S S 8.8 5.8 8.8 1.8
10P/Tempel 2 19990908.42 C C 9.9 0.028 9.9 0.007
C/1999 H3 (LINEAR) 19990818.23 S S 10.1 0.009 10.3 0.004
C/1999 N2 (Lynn) 19990723.05 S S 8.0 0.009 7.0 0.04
C/1999 H1 (Lee) 19990711.17 S 6.5 4.3

C/1998 T1 (LINEAR) 19990625.25 S 9.0 2.2

37P/Forbes 19990504.18 C C 10.2 5.0 8.5 7.0
P/1998 U3 (Jäger) 19990310.07 S 4.9 6.1

52P/Harrington-Abell 19990127.87 C C 11.2 0.0 11.3 0.008
C/1999 A1 (Tilbrook) 19990129.65 S 12.0 4.0

C/1998 M5 (LINEAR) 19990124.57 S 6.2 3.7

C/1998 U5 (LINEAR) 19981221.76 C S 8.2 6.0 8.7 3.7
21P/Giacobini-Zinner 19981121.31 C S 8.7 6.2 9.7 3.6
C/1998 P1 (Williams) 19981017.84 S S 6.5 3.0 7.3 2.8
93P/Lovas 1 19981014.14 S 12.7 0.0

88P/Howell 19980927.17 S S 5.8 11.0 7.7 4.2
C/1998 M2 (LINEAR) 19980813.17 S 12.3 0.0

C/1998 K5 (LINEAR) 19980717.44 S C 15.3 0.042 15.0 0.000
C/1998 J1 (SOHO) 19980508.61 S 6.4 2.6

62P/Tsuchinshan 1 19980419.05 S S 10.8 0.055 11.1 0.006
C/1998 H1 (Stonehouse) 19980414.40 S 10.6 1.8

C/1997 J2 (Meunier-Dupouy) 19980310.44 S S 4.6 3.1 3.4 4.3
104P/Kowal 2 19980302.16 S 10.4 3.3

55P/Tempel-Tuttle 19980228.09 S 8.4 10.5

103P/Hartley 2 19971222.01 S S 8.7 9.0 8.6 3.7
69P/Taylor 19971212.26 C 11.0 0.0

C/1997 T1 (Utsunomiya) 19971210.17 S 6.8 6.0

C/1997 D1 (Mueller) 19971011.61 S C 7.5 2.7 11.2 0.0
43P/Wolf-Harrington 19970929.21 S 7.3 7.5

78P/Gehrels 2 19970807.04 S 9.1 2.0

81P/Wild 2 19970506.62 S 6.4 6.2

C/1997 J1 (Mueller) 19970503.71 S 6.5 4.0

C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) 19970401.13 C C -0.65 3.15 -1.0 3.7
46P/Wirtanen 19970314.15 S S 8.0 11.5 8.5 3.5
118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4 19970112.11 S 10.2 2.0

C/1996 Q1 (Tabur) 19961103.52 C C 7.3 4.0 9.0 0.075
116P/Wild 4 19960831.23 S 7.8 0.017

C/1996 R1 (Hergenrother-Spahr) 19960828.73 S 7.0 6.0

C/1996 N1 (Brewington) 19960803.42 S S 9.5 6.3 8.5 6.2
C/1996 E1 (NEAT) 19960727.34 C 6.0 10.5

65P/Gunn 19960724.39 S S 5.0 6.0 4.0 6.0
22P/Kopff 19960702.19 S 6.6 5.6

C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) 19960501.39 C 5.2 3.3

C/1995 Y1 (Hyakutake) 19960224.28 S 7.4 4.5

C/1996 B1 (Szczepanski) 19960206.91 S 7.1 5.6

67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko 19960117.65 S S 10.7 0.025 10.4 0.002
45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova 19951225.98 C C 11.5 4.8 11.4 2.0
58P/Jackson-Neujmin 19951006.60 C C 14.3 0.02 10.5 0.00
122P/de Vico 19951006.02 S 7.4 4.2

73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 19950922.89 C 5.5 4.0

C/1995 Q1 (Bradfield) 19950831.41 S 7.5 3.0

6P/d'Arrest 19950727.31 C C 10.2 0.14 8.6 0.02
P/Borrelly (1994l) 19941101.49 S S 5.8 9.8 7.2 5.6
P/Machholz 2 - A (1994o) 19940918.80 C C 6.5 0.15 9.2 0.045
P/Machholz 2 - D (1994o) 19940918.80 C C 11.0 0.20 8.5 0.125
Nakamura-Nishimura-Machholz (1994m) 19940712.94 S 7.8 7.0

P/Tempel 1 (1993c) 19940703.30 S 5.9 8.6

Takamizawa (1994i) 19940629.63 S 9.1 0.010

Takamizawa-Levy (1994f) 19940522.53 S 7.1 3.5

McNaught-Russell (1993v) 19940331.09 S 8.8 2.4

Mueller (1994IX) 19940326.27 S S 6.0 4.3 6.6 0.087
P/Encke 19940209.47 S S 9.8 2.9 11.4 4.4
P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 2 19940123.90 S S 10.8 0.012 10.3 0.012
Mueller (1993a) 19940112.88 S 5.0 3.3

P/Schaumasse (1992x) 19930303.96 S S 7.1 13.1 8.9 4.4
P/Swift-Tuttle (1992t) 19921212.32 S S 4.5 7.1 4.4 6.0
Shoemaker-Levy (1991a1) 19920724.50 S 8.2 2.2

Tanaka-Machholz (1992d) 19920422.69 C 5.8 4.0

Mueller (1991h1) 19920321.20 S 10.1 4.7

Zanotta-Brewington (1991g1) 19920131.99 S S 8.9 2.0 10.1 3.9
P/Faye (1991n) 19911116.19 S 4.8 11.2

P/Wirtanen (1991s) 19910920.68 S 8.4 6.2

P/Hartley 2 (1991t) 19910911.65 S S 8.6 6.2 8.3 3.0
P/Levy (1991q) 19910708.19 S 7.6 3.7

P/Swift-Gehrels (1991c) 19910222.73 S 11.3 0.045

P/Metcalf-Brewington (1991a) 19910105.61 S 7.1 0.053

P/Encke 19901028.56 S 9.6 2.1

Levy (1990c) 19901024.68 S S 4.97 2.35 5.0 3.2
Tsuchiya-Kiuchi (1990i) 19900928.74 C 5.7 3.8

P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova (1990f) 19900912.68 S S 13.6 8.5 10.0 3.0
Skorichenko-George (1989e1) 19900411.92 C 6.7 0.015

Austin (1989c1) 19900409.96 S S 4.5 0.034 8.1 3.3
Cernis-Kiuchi-Nakamura (1990b) 19900317.32 S 6.5 15.0

Aarseth-Brewington (1989a1) 19891227.88 S 7.5 3.5

Helin-Roman-Alu (1989v) 19891215.94 S 10.2 5.1

Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko (1989r) 19891111.91 C S 7.3 2.3 8.3 3.2
P/Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o) 19890911.93 S 8.0 3.2

Yanaka (1988r) 19881211.65 S 12.6 5.0

Machholz (1988j) 19880917.56 C 8.0 2.2

P/Tempel 2 (1987g) 19880916.73 C C 7.7 0.092 8.4 0.006
Liller (1988a) 19880331.11 S S 6.4 3.6 5.5 3.0
P/Borrelly (1987p) 19871218.32 S S 6.2 8.5 6.8 6.5
McNaught (1987b1) 19871211.94 S S 5.8 6.0 5.2 4.9
Bradfield (1987s) 19871107.27 S 6.0 2.7

Rudenko (1987u) 19871009.52 S 8.5 3.6

Wilson (1986l) 19870420.78 C S 5.3 3.0 6.0 2.0
Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago (1987c) 19870317.34 S 6.1 5.7

Sorrells (1986n) 19870309.65 C 4.5 5.5

Terasako (1987d) 19861224.87 S 6.7 4.0

P/Machholz (1986e) 19860423.51 S 12.9 4.7

P/Halley (1982i) 19860209.45 S S 2.2 0.063 3.7 3.0
P/Boethin (1985n) 19860116.45 S 6.8 5.5

Thiele (1985m) 19851219.21 S 6.0 7.0

Hartley-Good (1985l) 19851209.11 S S 8.1 3.3 8.7 4.2
P/Giacobini-Zinner (1984e) 19850905.20 S S 8.8 5.4 9.6 5.6
Machholz (1985e) 19850628.73 C 8.2 1.2

Levy-Rudenko (1984t) 19841214.25 S 8.0 3.0

P/Schaumasse (1984m) 19841206.48 S 7.8 5.0

Austin (1984i) 19840812.13 S 7.6 3.6

P/Takamizawa (1984j) 19840524.95 C 10.0 4.0

P/Encke (1984VI) 19840327.68 S 9.1 2.5

P/Crommelin (1983n) 19840220.17 S S 10.3 6.5 9.4 4.5
P/Hartley-IRAS (1983v) 19840108.70 S C 7.5 4.0 6.0 4.0
P/Kopff (1982k) 19830810.29 S 2.9 10.5

Cernis (1983l) 19830721.21 S 2.5 4.0

P/Tempel 1 (1982j) 19830709.79 S 5.5 9.0

P/Tempel 2 (1982d) 19830601.53 S C 8.9 0.048 7.6 0.024
IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) 19830521.25 S 9.7 4.0

Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa (1983e) 19830501.32 C 11.5 6.0

P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (1982f) 19821112.09 S S 11.7 0.017 11.4 0.008
P/d'Arrest (1982e) 19820914.26 S C 10.0 0.071 8.3 0.000
Austin (1982g) 19820824.72 S S 8.0 3.3 7.6 3.2
P/Grigg-Skjellerup (1982a) 19820514.99 S S 12.0 16.0 12.5 4.0
Bowell (1980b) 19820312.29 S C 1.8 4.0 3.4 4.0
P/Swift-Gehrels (1981j) 19811127.45 S 11.3 0.045

P/Borrelly (1980i) 19810220.00 S 7.0 4.5

Panther (1980u) 19810127.32 C 6.5 1.5

Bradfield (1980t) 19801229.54 C 6.9 3.0

P/Tuttle (1980h) 19801214.70 S 8.4 5.5

Meier (1980q) 19801209.65 C 6.2 4.0

P/Encke (1980XI) 19801206.57 S 11.0 4.0

P/Stephan-Oterma (1980g) 19801205.16 S 4.6 10.0

Bradfield (1979l) 19791221.59 S 8.4 5.2

Meier (1979i) 19791017.34 S 9.5 4.0

Bradfield (1979c) 19790723.26 S 11.0 5.5

Meier (1978f) 19781111.40 S 2.5 5.0

P/Ashbrook-Jackson (1977g) 19780819.87 S 7.0 4.0

P/Wild 2 (1978b) 19780615.87 S 6.5 5.6

Bradfield (1978c) 19780317.69 S 7.2 2.8

Kohler (1977m) 19771110.57 S 6.6 6.3

P/Grigg-Skjellerup (1977b) 19770411.00 S S 12.0 16.0 12.5 4.0
P/d'Arrest (1976e) 19760812.87 C C 10.0 0.071 6.7 0.028
West (1975n) 19760225.22 S 4.4 3.2

Bradfield (1976a) 19760224.63 S 11.5 4.0

Mori-Sato-Fujikawa (1975j) 19751225.87 S 5.3 4.0

Bradfield (1975p) 19751221.18 S 8.9 2.9

Suzuki-Saigusa-Mori (1975k) 19751015.36 S 10.0 4.0

Kobayashi-Berger-Milon (1975h) 19750905.33 S 7.3 3.8

Bradfield (1974b) 19740318.35 S 7.5 2.9

Kohoutek (1973f) 19731228.43 S S 5.5 2.2 6.6 2.8
P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak (1973b) 19730530.08 C 14.0 4.0

Explanation of the table


Brightness evolution of Comets

The average brightness evolution of the majority of comets can be described by the formula:
m = M0 + 5×log (delta) + 2.5×n×log r.

In some cases the comet's brightness evolves in a time-dependent manner (indicated in the table above by values n < 0.5), which can be described by the formula:
m = M0 + 5×log (delta) + n×(t-T)

where:
delta = Distance Comet - Earth
r = Distance Comet - Sun
t = Time of observation

In most cases the brightness evolution of a comet can be described by one set of brightness parameters for the whole apparition or by one set each for the pre- and post-perihelion period.

However, in some cases comets show a complex evolution. This is described in the appropriate analysis, but cannot be represented in this table. In these cases the table lists mean or representative values for the pre- and post-perihelion parameters, which may deviate significantly from the actually recorded brightness evolution. Therefore it is recommended to study the appropriate analysis beside this table.

The column VoP indicates the complexity of the brightness evolution of a comet, in the case I analysed it. The meaning of VoP is as follows:

VoP Description
S The comet showed a uniform brightness evolution throughout the apparition which is well represented by the tabulated values
C The comet showed a complex brightness evolution -> the actual evolution has to be extracted from the analysis
S S The comet showed different but uniform brightness evolutions, pre- and post-perihelion, which are well represented by the tabulated values
C C The comet showed different, complex brightness evolutions, pre- and post-perihelion -> the actual evolution has to be extracted from the analysis
S C The comet showed different brightness evolutions, pre- and post-perihelion. Pre-perihelion the brightness evolution was uniform and is well represented by the tabulated values. Post-perihelion the brightness evolution was complex, therefore the actual evolution has to be extracted from the analysis
C S The comet showed different brightness evolutions, pre- and post-perihelion. Pre-perihelion the brightness evolution was complex, therefore the actual evolution has to be extracted from the analysis. Post-perihelion the brightness evolution was uniform and is well represented by the tabulated values
- the tabulated values have not been verified in any detailed manner by myself (simple deduction from the discovery brightness, brightness parameters taken from a former apparition, values taken from other comet-related sources etc.)

I have analysed apparitions of brighter comets since 1973. However, only those analysis which I prepared since mid-1996 are online so far. I intend to make the pre-1996 analysis available online during the coming years.

Andreas Kammerer